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For example, if the average moving average, etc. Based on a forecast number of tables and a service factor wait staff per table for example , a direct relationship between labor allocation and schedules can be accomplished.

Therefore, the number of times a table is turned in a time period lunch, dinner , the more revenue that can be gained. On the other hand, stock outs on a specific item sirloin steaks can negatively impact customer service and retention. Therefore, it is important to determine food ordering patterns based on past sales data for meals.

The professional advisors have provided some insight on customer sales and costs. Are busing staff cleaning tables fast enough? Are there enough personnel for the number of staff allocated? Are there bottlenecks in the kitchen causing prolonged dining time?

A point of sale and other technology tools system can provide some insight on various approached to alter operations.

Or at least determine the relationship between downloads of major products sirloin steaks and a steak dinner. The inventory on hand, downloads and meal sales can all be correlated to determine the amount of shrinkage stealing , spoilage or improper food preparation. Then, a spreadsheet template could be developed to enter specific data values from the POS and determine issues, if any, that require further analysis.

Guest checks should categorize various items File: D There are no boundaries or context on how to manage the business. The historical storage and tracking of data can provide a framework of what worked and what did not.

It provides for the continuous improvement of operations and strategies as well as management control.

Answers to Review Questions 1. Planning of moves while trying to guess the moves of major competitors is a part of strategy both in the military and business. In principle, any IS can gain strategic advantage for its owner. However, ISs that cannot significantly differentiate the products, services, or operations of an organizations are unlikely to become strategic or even considered as such. Such systems include accounting and HR systems, for instance.

An IS that accomplishes for its employer any of the strategic advantages listed in the chapter can be considered a SIS. An IS that helps provide a totally new product or service does not wrest market share from anyone, because the market for this product or service did not exist before. It is the new IS that helped create a new market.

This is one of the greatest types of strategic advantage: creating a new market and maintaining a leading position in it. Example: The early providers of stock trading online provided a new service. They Schwab, e-Trade, Ameritrade still enjoy competitive positions in this market. Top management must accept that IT is good not only for automation but as a strategic weapon. It must allow time and funds for brainstorming and experimentation with new services that can be supported only with ISs.

It is often difficult to convince top management of the need for any IS, because it is difficult, if not impossible, to present a return-on-investment ROI calculation for a new IS. Many of the expected benefits are not tangible. Thus, it is even more difficult to convince top management of the benefits of an IS that has not been built nor tried by anyone else.

Also, top managers often want to see immediate financial gain from any large money investment.

Also, strategic gains are not always realized in the short run, but in the long run. Top managers usually want to see gains within weeks or months, not years. In addition, the development of any new IS involves risks because success is not guaranteed.

Top managers are often reluctant to commit large sums of money for a risky project. The advantage of any strategic move is often short lived, including the advantages of a new SIS.

Competitors quickly follow suit and acquire the same, or a similar, system for their own use, and thereby closing the gap between them and the pioneer business. Reengineering is a fundamental overhauling of business processes. Ideally, reengineering results in a totally new method and technology to execute business processes.

In almost every reengineering project, IT is involved. This is because better IT can often save labor, increase product and quality service, and shorten business cycles.

Most reengineering projects failed because executives failed to affect changes in business processes. Companies that adopted ERP systems often affected such changes because the systems forced managers and employees to change the way they worked. Creating a standard means convincing a large enough number of organizations and individuals to use a certain application so that it becomes widely used.

Microsoft and Netscape created standards with their respective Web browsers.

Adobe created a standard with its PDF file format and the reader that can open these files. By creating a standard, companies create a market for their other products that are compatible with the standardized product.

The organization should constantly look for ways to improve the IS and the services that it supports. The companies then offer compatible software that is not free of charge.

These other applications enhance the original application, or allow the creation of documents that can be read and manipulated only with the standardized application. JetBlue is able to price its flights competitively through massive automation of many operations: booking, updating flight manuals, tracking bags, and others. It can also provide better service to passengers in the form of on-time departures and arrivals thanks to its superior IT, especially the electronic flight manuals that pilots can access in real time while in the cockpit.

None of the reasons for the failure were technical; all were business-related. Ford failed to consider the legal implications of bypassing the dealers. It also failed to recognize the negative impact of the move on its relationships with the dealers, which it would have to maintain for several more years, until all downloaders would be willing to download vehicles only through the Web a day that may never come!

Eventually, the dealers and, to some extent Ford, benefited. A growing number of car downloads originate at the Web site, where marketing cost per customer is about one-fourth of the traditional marketing. Ford says that data collected from the site help it predict sales volume.

The older airlines would have to discard their old ISs and spend millions of dollars investing in new ones. JetBlue had the advantage of being able to immediately invest in the latest technology. A first mover is a business that is first to introduce a new product or service. It often gains a large market share and a strategic advantage because other movers into its market lag behind in brand recognition and quality of the competing product or service.

Yes, a later mover can have strategic advantage with IT. See answer A late mover had the advantage of risking very little because other businesses already tested the new technology and proved its feasibility.

If it is powerful enough, it can deploy it faster than a weaker pioneering business. A late mover takes the risk that earlier movers will always do better with the new technology because of their longer experience, and therefore better ability to always be ahead of late movers in adding features to the technology, and their ability to create intellectual property of some of the improvements. It may lose a lot of money or market share because the effect of the new technology is adverse: the technology fails often and causes extra costs, or customers dislike it and are turned away, for example.

D.O.W.N.L.O.A.D [P.D.F] Management Information Systems by Effy Oz

Answers to Discussion Questions Any computer program, including an off-the-shelf one, can become an SIS. Often it is not the technical sophistication of the software that makes the system a strategic asset, but the innovative way in which the business uses it. The reason is: Owners know their business better than any consultant does. Therefore, they know what may improve their product, services, or the way they deliver the products or services to the customers.

This unique knowledge gives them some of the tools to develop strategic information systems. In the contract with the software company, you must insist on confidentiality. You must also demand the sole copy of the software. You must insist that the software company never develop similar software for a competitor. However, the latter may not be easy to enforce. In a capitalist society that encourages free enterprise and competition, businesses constantly look for new ideas that will gain them competitive advantages.

As long as no single organization holds control of the resources personnel, hardware, software, etc. The funds required to develop an SIS are sometimes huge and out of reach for smaller companies, but this is not a reason to bar them from pursuing such projects.

In the end, innovation improves the well-being of all members of society. It has not yet been fully utilized.

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Also, there are new Web technologies every few weeks that can serve new business opportunities. Therefore, anyone who starts a new, innovative business on the Web may reap the fruits first, and sometimes, maintain its competitive advantage there. New, innovative business processes almost always involve IT because IT helps reduce the number of workers involved in a process, collect and process data for business information, and reduce the cycles of business processes the time it takes to complete these processes.

They simply automate the process in the same manner for all organizations. Their technology is available to all; no technology that is immediately available to all can give its adopters a strategic position. However, site does enjoy the strategic advantage of one-click transactions, because it managed to patent it. Delivery of books: electronic books; delivery of software: download instead of shipping or downloading off the shelf already done by some vendors, but on a very limited scale.

IT allows these companies to collect, maintain, and analyze customer information. Collecting and maintaining the information without the use of IT would make such services unfeasible.

Implementing beta software, or even software that has been tested but is new, is always risky. This means that these executives consider such software carefully before they implement it. A SIS venture may be risky to the firm. SIS efforts may be expensive and involve a considerable amount of time and effort.

The system may not deliver intended benefits as the business, and it may attract the attention of a larger, well-funded competitor sleeping giant.

The firm may wish to consider a pilot project or it may wish to adopt a second-mover strategy.

Courts only examine whether the monopoly has an adverse effect on the consumer, and may decide to break up a monopoly if they believe that consumers will benefit from the breakup. Local telephone calls became more expensive. She also placed ads in three local newspapers and magazines. Julian passed out a few dozen business cards to friends and acquaintances. Marketing to residential clients would primarily consist of flyers left in the doors of houses in their targeted area, but they also planned to run ads in the local newspapers.

Ed prepared a few spreadsheets to help him keep track of sales, revenues, expenses, taxes, and profit.

PB3MAT_pert 3.pdf - Management Information Systems Kenneth...

She ciation, they would in turn distribute cards to their then tweaked some of it, and retested the system. All worked well. The system was now ready. The system was very simple but scalable, in case business boomed. The first clients were a small group of near After a month of operations, the cash flow was as expected.

However, data transcription was starting to neighbors, and the first gardeners were close take a toll. Client, subscription, and contract data friends of Julian.

Management Information Systems Solutions Manual

Then, Ed had to manually transcribe a client and gardener feedback: what they liked and large part of the data sets from the printed con- disliked, what was missing, and their ideas on how tracts and receipts into his spreadsheet program. After a week of pilot testing, the partners met to Soon they realized that they were falling behind on their paperwork. The business was running fine, evaluate the results.

They decided to add a new but the back office could not keep up. They also decided to add a free con- and financial spreadsheets. As the daily transac- firmation call the day before scheduled work to tions and client backlog grew, Ed had to spend remind the client but also to ask if there was anything else the client wanted.

They would also use the models to deter- Mary noticed that the one-time service sold well, mine if the occasional failures to properly match cli- but the rolling monthly contract did not sell as well ents and gardeners were the result of startup as expected. She also noticed that they had a problems, system problems, or structural business much higher than expected number of commis- problems.

They could not allow the current percent- sions for referrals from gardeners.

And with sum- age of matching failures to extend over the summer mer nearing they wanted to consider adding or season. Dissatisfied customers not only meant lost modifying seasonal services. Mary, Amanda, and sales and fewer profits but, more importantly, bad Ed had to consider the costs and potential benefits word-of-mouth.

To do this, they went back to their initial show which types of services, areas, and gardeners business models and fed them with real historical had larger or smaller failure rates. Hackett Concludes the Answer is Yes. This report, as well as many other observations, show that IT is no longer the sole domain of IT professionals. Business professionals can no longer count solely on IT specialists to make decisions on development, downloading, and deployment of information systems.

Regardless of their major field of expertise, those who have the proper IT knowledge and skills stand a better chance of receiving more lucrative job offers and faster promotions. We call it the decimal counting system.

However, we could also use a system consisting of only two digits, zero and one, to represent quantities. This is the binary counting system. Because computers and related devices use the binary system—a system that uses two digits—they are referred to as digital systems. However, digital systems are not used only to represent information that contains numbers, or quantities.

They can also represent any information as combinations of zeroes and ones, or, more accurately, the two states that represent zeroes and ones. Digital information consists of zeroes and ones representing two states.

When you have a mechanism that can represent two states, such as electrically charged and uncharged elements, magnetized and nonmagnetized areas, light and no light, you have a way to represent the zeroes and ones. Based on such signals, information can be represented, stored, communicated, and processed digitally. That is, a digital copy is an exact copy of the original. For example, an analog copy machine reproduces images by reflection or a similar technique.

The copy may be good, but it is never as good as the original. And as you make a copy from the copy, the quality deteriorates. When you make a copy of a digital file, such as an image file or a musical file, the system you use first captures the combinations of signals the digits, zeroes and ones that make up the file.

When processed by the proper hardware and software, the digits are transformed back into the image, or music, or whatever other information you copied. As long as your computer or other digital device can capture all the digits that make up the information, the original information can be re-created fully. Digital information is stored and communicated by way of electromagnetic signals— electricity, magnetism, and light.

These processes involve little or no moving parts. Therefore, storage, retrieval, processing, and communication of digital information are extremely fast.

These capabilities—accuracy and speed—make digital systems powerful and therefore useful and important in so many fields: business, education, entertainment, and many others. Umbrella Shall I or shall I not take the umbrella? Perhaps you should download a smart umbrella, such as the Ambient Forecasting Umbrella.

Through a radio receiver, the umbrella receives weather information from AccuWeather. A small display in the handle pulses light according to the probability of rain. If the probability is 60 percent, the handle pulses once per second. If the probability is percent, it pulses times per minute. Source: Bermudez, A. For instance, you probably seek information for entertainment and enlightenment by viewing television, watching movies, browsing the Internet, listening to the radio, and reading newspapers, magazines, and books.

In business, however, people and organizations seek and use information mainly to make sound decisions and to solve problems—two closely related practices that form the foundation of every successful company. What is a problem? A problem is any undesirable situation.

When you are stuck in the middle of nowhere with a flat tire, you have a problem. You can solve both problems with the aid of information. In the first case, you can call a towing company, which might use a computerized tracking system to send the tow truck closest to your location; in the second case, simple accounting software can help. An organization or individual that identifies more than one way to solve a problem or a dilemma must make a decision. This dilemma calls for decision making. Both problem solving and decision making require information.

The purpose of information systems is to support these activities. In addition to solving problems and making decisions, businesses use information systems to support daily operations, such as electronic commerce, making airline reservations, and many other activities. As a professional, you need to understand and apply information fundamentals to succeed. Why You Should Be Well-Versed in Information Systems You might be surprised at how much information technology IT knowledge your prospective employer will expect of you when you interview for your next job, even if the position you seek is not in the IT area.

Information is the lifeblood of any organization, commercial or nonprofit; it is essential to sound problem solving and decision making, upon which business success is built.

In fact, the main factor limiting the services and information that computers can provide within an organization is the budget. Because of rapid changes in technology, information systems, unlike many other business components, are quickly changing in form and content. A computer considered fast and powerful today will be an outdated machine in 18—24 months. In 12—24 months, a better program will surpass one that is considered innovative right now. The dynamic nature of information technology is like a moving target.

A professional who does not stay informed is of diminishing value to an organization. All knowledge workers—professionals, scientists, managers, and others who create new information and knowledge in their work—must be familiar with IT. Moreover, they must know which IT is relevant for their work and what information they can obtain with a certain technology or networked resource.

Professionals must at all times maintain a clear picture of their organizations and the outside business environment. They must know what resources are available to them and to their competitors.Top managers usually want to see gains within weeks or months, not years. The real impact and value returned must be determined by in this case the impact on the value to the customer.

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If he walks through the lobby and sees a virtual wall full of Batman toys and action figures, the only way to peel him away from the wall is to download him something. Are there enough personnel for the number of staff allocated? Microsoft and Netscape created standards with their respective Web browsers. Effy Oz Pages: Teaching Thoughts 1.

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