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W94 —dc22 ISBN (pdf ebook) W. W. With the Third Edition, Worlds Together, Worlds Apart continues to offer a. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart. A History of the World: From the Beginnings of Humankind to Resource. Test Bank, Sample Chapter 11, PDF. (PDF, MB) . This page intentionally left blank. SECOND EDITION VO LU M E O N E. Worlds Together, Wo r l d s A p a r t. AR 0º º CT IC º º º º º 80º 60º.


Worlds Together Worlds Apart Pdf

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techetolyson.cf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Read Worlds Together, Worlds Apart PDF - by Robert Tignor W. W. Norton & Company | Global connections and comparisons, now more. Read Worlds Together, Worlds Apart PDF - A History of the World by Elizabeth Pollard W. W. Norton & Company | A Concise Edition with clear.

Part of the Kushan empire, Gandhara maintained close contact with Rome and incorporated many Greco-Roman motifs into its Buddhist art. In this representation, although the iconography remains South Asian, Buddha appears as a youthful Apollo-like figure. Homo Habilis 11 Early Humans on the Move: Their Challengers. Authoritarian Rule. Rome in the East: Joan of Arc xxiii. Confucianism versus Daoism Warring Ideas: Maps Early Hominids 8 Early Migrations: The Eastern Mediterranean and Europe.

Korea and Japan. Worlds Apart M ost books have a back story. Some of the books available at the time were written by a single author. For an entire year we met to discuss the ways in which we would craft a modern world history and the global themes we wanted to stress. We wrote a lot—and a lot of what we wrote ended up in recycling bins. Then we began to write. Although the importance of the course for students of an increasingly globalized era was immediately recognized.

The story begins nearly twenty years ago. We all wrote sections in each of the chapters. The instructors searched in vain for a textbook that would provide both coverage and integrated analysis.

In this case. The greatest challenge was how to treat the many regions of the world and the many centuries in an integrated way and in a single semester. All this xxix. Others were written by a team of regional experts and had authoritative treatments of regions but lacked integration and balance. With the full support of Princeton University. During these meetings.

Each of us had a regional specialization as well as an interest in how our regions fitted into larger cross-regional relationships. After intensive and sometimes contentious discussions. Why not apply the WTWA model to the early period of world history? In we set out to do just that. Some of these changes were dramatic and affected many people. The first is that world history is global history. But the peoples living in the Afro-Eurasian landmass.

The general editor then wrote the final draft to ensure that a strong. No section. While we were hard at work writing the chapters covering the earlier periods. It is in this sense that our world history is global. In more modern.

It would be misleading to say that the context is the world. In crafting the stories and chapters that would cover the earlier periods of world history. They affected peoples living in widely dispersed societies. Southwest Asia. There are many fine histories of the individual regions of the world. A new generation of textbooks is needed to help students and instructors make sense of this vast.

Over the ten-year period of work on this book. South Asia. Rather than telling the story of world history by analyzing separate geographical areas. Chronology helps us understand the ways in which the world has. At the outset of human existence. Environments changed. But unlike the authors of many other so-called world histories.

Chapter 2. Graduate history students receive training in world history. Worlds Apart: Afro-Eurasia was not divided or thought of as divided into separate landmasses until recent times. Several millennia later. Chapter headings give a clue to the turning points or periods that paid no heed to geography and culture. The second principle informing this work is the importance of chronology in framing world history. Different individuals coordinated the chapters. WTWA hopes to be the first to plot this new course and to inspire its readers to continue their studies in this increasingly critical field.

Ten years after we began our work. Chapters 4 through 6. Worlds Together. During the next millennium. These changes swept across large landmasses.

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Our goal is to place each of these regions in its largest geographical context. Courses in the history of the world now abound.

We were pleased to discover. In other cases. Chapter 3. The original text now Volume Two was adopted widely in its first year of publication and has gone on to be used at over colleges and universities worldwide and has sold over Worlds Apart is not intended to convey the message that the history of the world is a story of increasing integration.

We seek to pay attention to the global histories of all peoples and not to privilege those developments that led directly into European history as if the rest of the history of the world was but a prelude to the rise of western civilization. We deal with peoples living outside Europe on their own terms and try to see world history from their perspective.

So are scholars and religious leaders. The discovery of large silver mines in Spanish America in the sixteenth century provided a precious metal that brought the economies of the world into closer contact Chapter Worlds Apart around big ideas.

They exploded onto the scene of settled societies at critical junctures. The fifth and final principle is that world history is a narrative of big themes and high-level comparisons. Brahmans in India. Our fourth principle is an emphasis on connections and what we call disconnections across societal and cultural boundaries. Worlds Apart is not a book of record.

Even more significantly. What for one ruling group brought benefits in the form of increased workforces.

Worlds Together, Worlds Apart

They hardly seem to be made of the stuff that will catapult Europeans to world leadership a millennium later—indeed. It is the history of the connections among peoples living often at great distances from one another. Our aspiration is to identify the main historical forces that have moved history. Two world wars linked the entire international community on battlefields and in great loss of life Chapters 19 and Rather than simply viewing these cultures in terms of their role in western development.

In the nineteenth century. We have constructed Worlds Together. The third principle is historical and geographical balance. We have sought to offer clear themes and interpretations in order to synthesize the vast body of data that often overwhelms histories of the world.

Perhaps most important of all in premodern world history. World history is not the history of separate regions of the world at different periods of time. Preface times. Merchants are important. Ours is not a history focused on the rise of the West. The Europeans we describe are rather rough. In this regard.

From our perspective. In arid steppe lands. A recurring theme. By the same token. Indian Ocean merchants in the sixteenth century. Some of these regions welcomed global connections. We describe those historical actors.

If there was a world apart.

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The transregional crossings of ideas. This was a long-term legacy that evolved over the ensuing centuries of human history. Besides the central theme of interconnection and divergence. In this sense. In Worlds Together. Such movements changed the relationship of different population groups with other peoples and areas of the world and led over time to dramatic shifts in the ascendancy of regions.

Not all societies stratified themselves along gender lines in the same way. Others sought to change the nature of their connections with the outside world. Worlds Apart. Worlds Apart—one that runs through the chapters and connects the different parts of the volume—is the theme of interconnection and divergence.

Old World diseases were introduced to the New World after Changes in power arrangements within and between regions explain which parts of the world and regional groups benefited from integration and which resisted it.

As with gender. Jewish prophets under Roman rule. But we also describe those individuals who led movements in defense of cherished historical and cultural heritages. Whole communities. There was plenty of backsliding. Indian rebels in Some learned from experience. These three themes exchange and migration. Chief among these have been the divisions between rulers and subjects.

Women and men lived in small-scale. In this fashion. The gender divide has been one of the most important factors in shaping the evolution of societies. One of the primary divides across all societies was the difference between men and women.

They went from adapting to nature to controlling it. Merchants and educated men and women traded goods and ideas.

Throughout history. While describing movements that facilitated global connectedness. Others could not cope with shocks. From the beginnings of humanity to the present. To a very large extent. Volume One of Worlds Together, Worlds Apart deals with the period from the beginnings of human history through the Mongol invasions of the thirteenth century and the spread of the Black Death across Afro-Eurasia.

It is divided into eleven chapters, each of which marks a distinct historical period. Hence, each chapter has an overarching theme or small set of themes that hold otherwise highly diverse material together. World history books now have a nearly mandatory opening chapter on prehistory.

We believe that this chapter is important in establishing the global context of world history. We believe too that our chapter is unique in its focus on how humans became humans, so we discuss how early humans became bipedal and how they developed complex cognitive processes such as language and artistic abilities.

Recent research indicates that Homo sapiens originated in Africa, probably no more than , years ago. These early men and women walked out of the African landmass sometime between , and 50, years ago, gradually populating all regions of the world. What is significant in this story is that the different population groups around the world, the so-called races of humankind, have only recently broken off from one another. Also in this chapter, we describe the domestication of plants and animals and the founding of the first village settlements around the globe.

On the flood plains of the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the Nile in Egypt, the Indus valley in modernday northern India and Pakistan, and the Yellow and Yangzi rivers in China, men and women mastered annual floods and became expert in seeding and cultivating foodstuffs. In these areas, populations became dense. Riverine cultures had much in common. They had highly developed hierarchical political, social, and cultural systems, priestly and bureaucratic classes, and organized religious and cultural systems.

But they also differed greatly, and these differences were passed from generation to generation. Compare ancient Egypt, which had a dearth of large cities, with Mesopotamia, which was the heartland of urban development.

Consider as well the Chinese ruling elites, who early on displayed a talent for organizing large swaths of territories with heavy population densities and gradually imposing on them a unified culture. The development of these major complex societies certainly is a turning point in world history. Drought, en-.

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When aridity forced tribal and nomadic peoples living on the fringes of the settled populations to move closer to settled areas, they brought with them an insurmountable military advantage.

They had become adept at yoking horses to war chariots, and hence they were in a position to subjugate or intermarry with the peoples in the settled polities in the river basins. Around BCE these peoples established new territorial kingdoms in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus valley, and China, which gave way a millennium later BCE to even larger, militarily and politically more powerful states.

In the Americas, the Mediterranean, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Pacific worlds, microsocieties arose as an alternative form of polity in which peoples lived in much smaller-scale societies that showcased their own unique and compelling features. Both states established different models that future empires would emulate. The Assyrians used brutal force to intimidate and subjugate different groups within their societies and neighboring states.

The Persians followed a pattern that relied less on coercion and more on tributary relationships, while reveling in cultural diversity. Vedic society in South Asia offers a dramatically different model in which religion and culture are the main unifying forces.

Religion moves to the forefront of the narrative in other ways in this chapter. The birth of monotheism occurred in the Zoroastrian and Hebrew faiths and the beginnings of Buddhism—all three religions endure today. During the last millennium before the common era, the worlds surrounding these centralized, riverine polities emerged as major players on the historical stage just as these first empires were declining.

They also developed new strategies for understanding the natural world and humankind. The Greek city-states were the most dynamic of these new cultures, and they spread their Hellenistic culture far and wide. In China, Confucians and Daoists debated how best to create a well-ruled and stable society during the Warring States period.

Similar debates occurred in South Asia, where early Buddhists and Brahmin priests in Vedic society strove to provide a more spiritually compelling belief system for their followers. In Greece, Plato, Socrates, and the Sophists discussed nature and humanity. In Africa, the Bantu. These were all dynamic hybrid societies building on existing knowledge. First, Alexander and his armies changed the political and cultural landscape of North Africa and Southwest and South Asia.

Culturally, Alexander spread Hellenism through North Africa and Southwest and central Asia, making it the first cultural system to achieve a transregional scope. Alexander and his men followed existing pathways across Southwest Asia on their way to South Asia, but it was in the post-Alexander world that these commercial roads were stabilized and intensified.

For the first time, a trading network, known as the Silk Road, stretching from Palmyra in the West to Central Asia in the East, came into being. Both the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire ruled effectively in their own way, providing an instructive comparative case study.

Both left their imprint on Afro-Eurasia, and rulers for centuries afterward tried to revive these glorious polities and use them as models of greatness. This chapter also discusses the effect of state sponsorship on religion, as Christianity came into existence in the context of the late Roman Empire and Buddhism was introduced to China during the decline of the Han. The Byzantine Empire, claiming to be the successor state to the Roman Empire, embraced Christianity as its state religion.

The Tang rulers patronized Buddhism to such a degree that Confucian statesmen feared it had become the state religion. Both Buddhism and Christianity enjoyed spectacular.

These dynamic religions represent a decisive turning point in world history. Buddhism grew through imperial sponsorship and significant changes to its fundamental beliefs, when adherents to the faith deified Buddha and created notions of an afterlife. In Africa we see a wide range of significant developments and a myriad of cultural practices, yet we also witness the ongoing development of large common cultures.

The Bantu peoples spread throughout the southern half of the landmass, spoke closely related languages, and developed similar political institutions based on the prestige of individuals of high achievement. In the Americas the Olmecs established their own form of the citystate, while the Mayans owed their success to a decentralized common culture built around a strong religious belief system and a series of spiritual centers. The rise of Islam, clearly another turning point in world history, provides a contrast to the way in which universalizing religions and political empires interacted.

Islam and empire arose in a fashion quite different from Christianity and the Roman Empire. Christianity took over an already existing empire—the Roman—after suffering persecution at its hands for several centuries.

In contrast, Islam created an empire almost at the moment of its emergence. Toward the end of his life, the Prophet Muhammad was already establishing the rudiments of an empire as he contemplated taking control of the whole Arabian Peninsula and extending his influence to Syria and Iraq.

By the time the Abbasid Empire came into being in the middle of the eighth century, Islamic armies, political leaders, and clerics exercised power over much of the AfroEurasian landmass from southern Spain, across North Africa, all the way to Central Asia. They reached far into the interior of the sub-Saharan region.

Confucianism enjoyed a spectacular recovery in this period. Japan and Korea also enter world history at this time, as tributary states to Tang China and as hybrid cultures that mixed Chinese customs and practices with their own. The Vikings highlight the role that nomadic peoples played in developing trade in Afro-Eurasia.

The Christian world split in this period between the western Latin church and the eastern Byzantine church. Just as importantly, the world in this period divided into regional zones that are recognizable today. And trade grew rapidly. A look at the major trading cities of this time demonstrates how commerce transformed cultures. Sub-Saharan Africa also underwent intense regional integration via the spread of the Mande-speaking peoples and the Mali Empire.

The Americas witness their first empire in the form of the Chimu peoples in the Andes. This chapter ends with the Mongol conquests of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, which brought massive destruction. The Mongol Empire, however, once in place, promoted long-distance commerce, scholarly exchange, and travel on an unprecedented scale.

The Mongol story also underscores the important role that nomads played throughout the history of the early world. The polities that came into being at this time and the intense religious experimentation that took place effected a sharp break with the past. The bubonic plague wiped out as much as twothirds of the population in many of the densely settled locations of Afro-Eurasia. The organizational structure for Volume Two reaffirms the commitment to write a decentered, global history of the world.

Christopher Columbus is not the starting point, as he is in so many modern world histories. Rather, we begin in the eleventh and twelfth centuries with two major developments in world history. This world experienced rapid population growth, as is shown by a simple look at the major trading cities from Asia in the East to the Mediterranean in the West.

Yet nomadic peoples remain a force as revealed in the Mongol invasions of Afro-Eurasia. Both these stories set the stage for the modern world and are clear-cut turning points in world history. The primary agents of world connection described in this chapter were dynasts, soldiers, clerics, merchants, and adventurers who rebuilt the societies that disease and political collapse had destroyed.

It is the collision between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres that sets in motion modern world history and marks a distinct divide or turning point between the premodern and the modern. Here, too, disease and increasing trade linkages were vital. Unprepared for the advanced military technology and the disease pool of European and African peoples, the Amerindian population experienced a population decline even more devastating than that caused by the Black Death.

Europeans sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to find a more direct, less encumbered route to Asia and came upon lands, peoples, and products that they had not expected. One item, however, that they had sought in every part of the world and that they found in abundance in the Americas was precious metal. The effect of New World silver on the world economy was so great that it, even more than the Iberian explorations of the New World, brought the hemispheres together and marks the true genesis of modern world history.

We also discuss the importance of sugar, which linked the economies and polities of western Europe, Africa, and the Americas in a triangular trade centered on the Atlantic Ocean. Sugar, silver, spices, and other products sparked and expanded commercial exchanges and led to cultural flourishing around the world. In this chapter, we look closely at how culture is created as a historical process and describe how the massive growth in wealth during this period, growing out of global trade, led to one of the great periods of cultural flourishing in world history.

Around , transformations reverberated outward from the Atlantic world and altered economic and political relationships in the rest of the world. These forces of laissez-faire capitalism, industrialization, the nation-state, and republicanism not only attracted diverse groups around the world; they also threatened groups that put forth alternative visions.

Ideas of freedom, as manifested in trading relations, labor, and political activities, clashed with a traditional world based on inherited rights and statuses and further challenged the way men and women had lived in earlier times.

These political, intellectual, and economic reorderings changed the way people around the world saw themselves and thus represent something quite novel in world history. Here, intense resistance to evolving modernity reflected the diversity of peoples and their hopes for the future. Prophets and leaders had visions that often drew on earlier traditions and that led these individuals to resist rapid change. Yet this period of seeming European supremacy was to prove short-lived.

As in Chapter 14, we look at the processes by which specific cultural movements arise and reflect the concerns of individual societies. Yet here, too, syncretistic movements emerged in many cultures and reflected the sway of global imperialism, which by then had become a dominant force.

It is the development of modernism and its effects on multiple cultures that integrate the diverse developments discussed in this chapter. In the decades between the world wars, proponents of liberal democracy struggled to defend their views. A three-world order came into being— the First World, led by the United States and extolling capitalism, the nation-state, and democratic government; the Second World, led by the Soviet Union and favoring authoritarian polities and economies; and the Third World, made up of former colonies seeking an independent status for themselves in world affairs.

The rise of this three-world order dominates the second half of the twentieth century and constitutes another major theme of world history. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, capital, commodities, peoples, and ideas move rapidly over long distances. But cultural tensions and political impasses continue to exist.

It is the rise of this form of globalism that represents a vital new element as humankind heads into a new century and millennium. We close with an Epilogue, which tracks developments since the turn of the millennium. These last few years have brought profound changes to the world order, yet we hope readers of Worlds Together, Worlds Apart will see more clearly how this most recent history is, in fact, entwined with trends of much longer duration that are the chief focus of this book.

The history of the world is not a single, sweeping narrative. On the contrary, the last 5, years have produced multiple histories, moving along many paths and trajectories. Sometimes these histories merge, intertwining themselves in substantial ways.

Sometimes they disentangle themselves and simply stand apart. Much of the time, however, they are simultaneously together and apart.

Formulated in this way, world history is the unfolding of many possible histories, and readers of this book should come away with a reinforced sense of the unpredictability of the past, the instability of the present, and the uncertainty of the future.

Let us begin our story! Worlds Together, Worlds Apart is designed for maximum readability. The crisp, clear narrative, built around stories, themes, and concepts, is accompanied by a highly useful.

Highlights of this innovative program are described below. Every chapter opens with a two-page map of the world designed to highlight the main story line of the chapter. Within the chapter appear four to five more maps that focus on the regions covered.

Enhanced captions encourage more interaction with the map program. Each caption provides contextual information and then asks three types of questions: Thinking beyond the map Fo c u s - Q u e s t i o n S ys t e m The focus-question system helps the reader remain alert to key concepts and questions on every page of the text.

P r i m a ry S ou rc e D o c u m e n ts The authors have selected three to five primary source documents for each chapter. Perhaps most importantly, many of them challenge students to see world history through the eyes of others and from different perspectives. Each excerpt is accompanied by at least two study questions.

Additional primary sources are available on the Digital History Reader, which is part of the Norton StudySpace website. Among the many topics included are how historians use technology to date bones and objects from early history, the use of ritual funeral objects in the contexts of religion and trade, the role of libraries in early world history, the travels of Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta, coffee drinking and coffeehouses in different parts of the world, cartography and maps as expressions of different worldviews, the growth of universities around the world, and Che Guevera.

With the Second Edition come new chronologies that are organized regionally rather than temporally. Each chapter ends with a chronology. The chronologies allow students to track unifying concepts and to see influences across cultures and societies within a given time period. F u rt h e r R e a d i n g s Each chapter includes an ample list of suggested further readings, annotated so that students can see what each book or article covers.

Worlds Together, Worlds Apart would never have happened without the full support of Princeton University. In a highly unusual move, and one for which we are truly grateful, the university helped underwrite this project with financial support from its th Anniversary Fund for undergraduate teaching and by allowing release time for the authors from campus commitments.

We would be remiss if we did not single out the department manager, Judith Hanson, who provided us with assistance whenever we needed it. We also thank Eileen Kane, who provided help in tracking down references and illustrations and in integrating changes into the manuscript.

We also would like to thank Pamela Long, who made all of the complicated arrangements for ensuring that we were able to discuss matters in a leisurely and attractive setting. Sometimes that meant arranging for long-distance conference calls. She went even further and proofread the entire manuscript, finding many errors that we had all overlooked.

We drew shamelessly on the expertise of the departmental faculty, and although it might be wise simply to include a roster of the Princeton history department, that would do an injustice to those of whom we took most advantage. So here they are: When necessary, we went outside the history department, getting help from L. Two departmental colleagues—Natalie Z. Davis and Elizabeth Lunbeck—were part of the original team but had to withdraw because of other commitments.

Worlds Together Worlds Apart Volume 1

Their contributions were vital, and we want to express our thanks to them. David Gordon, now at the University of Maryland, used portions of the text while teaching an undergraduate course at the University of Durban in South Africa and shared comments with us. Shamil Jeppie, like David Gordon a graduate of the Princeton history department, now teaching at the University of Cape Town in South Africa, read and commented on various chapters.

Beyond Princeton, we have also benefited from exceptionally gifted and giving colleagues who have assisted this book in many ways. It goes without saying that none of these individuals bears any responsibility for factual or interpretive errors that the text may contain.

Xinru Liu would like to thank her Indian mentor, Romila Thapar, who changed the way we think about Indian history. The quality and range of reviews on this project were truly exceptional. The final version of the manuscript was greatly influenced by the thoughts and ideas of numerous instructors. We wish to particularly thank our consulting reviewers, who read multiple versions of the manuscript from start to finish. Jon Lee, San Antonio College, has played many important roles on this project.

He has served as a super reviewer on both editions, reading the draft manuscripts multiple times. He also created many of the original support materials that accompanied the First Edition.

(PDF Download) Worlds Together Worlds Apart: A History of the World: From the Beginnings of

With the Second Edition, he was the primary force behind the map and pedagogy program for Volume One. He also has taken on the responsibilities for creating the digital history reader that accompanies the text. We are ever grateful to him for his ongoing support and contributions. We also want to thank Nancy Khalek Ph. Princeton University , who has just taken her first tenure-track job, at Franklin and Marshall College.

Nancy was our jack-of-alltrades who helped in any way she could. She attended all the monthly meetings during the development of the early volume.

She provided critiques of the manuscript, helped with primary research, worked on the photo program and the Global Connections and Disconnections features, and contributed content to the student website. She was invaluable.

Our association with the publisher of this volume, W. Jon Durbin took us under the wing of the Norton firm. He attended all of our monthly meetings spanning the better part of four years across the creation of both volumes.

How he put up with some of our interminable discussions will always be a mystery, but his enthusiasm for the endeavor never flagged, even when we seemed to grow weary. Sandy Lifland was the ever-watchful and ever-careful development editor for each volume.

She let us know when we were making sense and when we needed to explain ourselves more fully. We also want to thank newcomers to the project Alice Falk and Rebecca Homiski. Alice Falk was our talented and insightful co-developmental editor and copyeditor on Volume One.

Rebecca Homiski did a fabulous job as our project editor, coordinating the responses of up to twelve authors on both volumes combined and locking down all the details on the project. We also want to thank Ellen Lohman for copyediting the Volume Two manuscript ably and with just the right touch under a very tight schedule and Sarah England for providing comments on our Volume Two revisions in a timely and thoughtful fashion.

Stephanie Romeo, Jennifer Bright, and Julie Tesser shared duties in finding wonderful photos for both volumes. Rubina Yeh created a beautiful design.

Roy Tedoff guided the manuscripts through the production process under a very tight schedule. We also want to thank Alexis Hilts, the most recent newcomer to the project, for helping to pull together many loose ends during the copyediting and production stages. Finally, we must recognize that while this project often kept us apart from family members, their support held our personal worlds together. Professor Tignor has taught graduate and undergraduate courses in African history and world history and written extensively on the history of twentieth-century Egypt, Nigeria, and Kenya.

Oxford University is currently the chair of the history department at Princeton University and the Walter S. He has written and edited five books, including Republic of Capital: He has also published articles in a variety of books and journals, in-.

He has written on the rise of Christianity and the end of the Roman Empire. He is presently working on issues of wealth and poverty in the late Roman and early medieval Christian worlds.

He taught at the University of California, Los Angeles, for over fifteen years. His teaching and research fields include Chinese intellectual and cultural history, —; the history of science in China, —; the history of education in late imperial China; and Sino-Japanese cultural history, — He is the author of five books: From Philosophy to Philology: He is the creator of Classical Historiography for Chinese History at www.

University of California, Berkeley is professor of history and teaches European and Asian history at Princeton University, where he also serves as director of Russian studies. He is the author of Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse, — and Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization and is a coeditor of Mongolia in the Twentieth Century: Landlocked Cosmopolitan. He is currently finishing a book entitled Lost in Siberia: Dreamworlds of Eurasia, which is a study of the Ob River valley over the last seven centuries.

Professor Kotkin has twice been a visiting professor in Japan. University of Pennsylvania is assistant professor of early Indian history and world history at the College of New Jersey.

Professor Marchand also spent a number of years teaching at Princeton University. She is the author of Down from Olympus: Columbia University is professor of art history at the University of Pennsylvania, where she teaches art and archaeology of Mesopotamia and the Iranian Plateau. She has written extensively on the art and culture of the Bronze Age in the Middle East and has participated in excavations in Cyprus, Turkey, Syria,.

Iraq, and Iran, where she currently works. Her research investigates works of art as media through which patterns of thought, cultural development, and historical interactions of ancient cultures of the Near East are reconstructed.

He is the author of Bonded Histories: Science and the Imagination of Modern India. Professor Prakash edited After Colonialism: Imperial Histories and Postcolonial Displacements and has written a number of articles on colonialism and history writing. He is currently working on a history of the city of Bombay. With Robert Tignor, he introduced the modern world history course at Princeton University. His principal areas of specialization as a Roman historian are Roman family history and demography, sectarian violence and conflict in Late Antiquity, and the regional history of Africa as part of the Roman Empire.

Princeton is associate professor of history and international studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is the author of Nation, Governance, and Modernity in China: Canton, — His current research explores the politics of cultural translation with regard to the refashioning of social and institutional practices in China since the mid-nineteenth century.

Today, we believe the world to be divided into continents, and most of us think that it was always so. Geographers usually identify six inhabited continents: Yet this geographical understanding would have been completely alien to premodern men and women, who did not think that they inhabited continents bounded by large bodies of water. Lacking a firm command of the seas,. Hence, in this volume we have chosen to use a set of geographical terms, the main one being Afro-Eurasia, that more accurately reflect the world that the premoderns believed that they inhabited.

The most interconnected and populous landmass of premodern times was Afro-Eurasia. The term Eurasia is widely used in general histories, but we think it is in its own ways inadequate.

The preferred term from our perspective must be Afro-Eurasia, for the intercon-. Only gradually and fitfully did the divisions of the world that we take for granted today take shape. The peoples inhabiting the northwestern part of the Afro-Eurasian landmass did not see themselves as European Christians, and hence as a distinctive cultural entity, until the Middle Ages drew to a close in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

Islam did not arise and extend its influence throughout the middle zone of the Afro-Eurasian landmass until the eighth and ninth. And, finally, the peoples living in what we today term the Indian subcontinent did not feel a strong sense of their own cultural and political unity until the Delhi Sultanate of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and the Mughal Empire, which emerged at the beginning of the sixteenth century, brought political unity to that vast region.

As a result, we use the terms South Asia, Vedic society, and India in place of Indian subcontinent for the premodern part of our narrative, and we use Southwest Asia and North Africa to refer to what today is designated as the Middle East.

In fact, it is only in the period from to that some of the major cultural areas that are familiar to us today truly crystallized. The fossil finds confirmed what earlier blood analyses and DNA studies had already suggested: Homo sapiens.

Although the skeletal remains were not identical to those of modern men and women— who are technically Homo sapiens sapiens. As Tim White. In short. The bones were lodged in volcanic rock. By dating this rock through analysis of its chemical structure.

The task of identifying and reassembling these finds took six years of painstaking work. Though the hominids that finally evolved into modern humans Homo sapiens lived millions of years ago. Recent and mounting evidence suggests that humans have a common African heritage and that they spread to the rest of the world a relatively short time ago.

It will show how many different earlier hominids humanlike beings who walked erect preceded modern humans. Most of the common traits of human beings—an ability to make tools.

They created languages. What is now known about the origins of human existence and the evolution into modern humans over the millennia would have astonished individuals all around the globe a century ago.

With this development. We are also much newer than was once imagined. This is an important insight: The characteristics that make us human are in fact quite recent in origin. Only with the advent of settled agriculture did significant cultural divergences become apparent. But what is now becoming clear is the opposite: October One scholar even refined the figures to specify that creation happened at 9: How did Homo sapiens become the only hominid species? What factors contributed to the domestication of plants and animals?

What factors contributed to autonomous innovation in agriculture versus early borrowing? How did agricultural revolutions foster new communal hierarchies and interaction? To understand the origins of modern humans. Only in the last This chapter lays out the origins of humanity from its common source. Only years ago. They contend that as these early descendants of modern men and women evolved. One of the biggest breakthroughs was the domestication of animals and plants—the creation of agrarian settlements.

We must also come to terms with time. The Yorubas believed that in the beginning God descended from the heavens in human form. Southeastern England. The great cultural traditions would not have even considered the idea that human beings are part of a long evolutionary chain.

Take as an example the creation story of the Yoruba peoples of West Africa. A mere century ago. Tools made of bone. Now we see things differently. The Chinese from East Asia. The origin of the universe dates back some 15 billion years.

These discoveries have proved as mind-boggling to Hindus and Muslims as to Christians and Jews. Or consider the time frame for creation as described in the Brahmanical Vedas and the Upanishads. Or as another example consider the creation story of the Buddhists.

In all of the traditional cosmologies. Human Evolution Australopithecus anamensis 4. The tools shown include a pounder. And they would not have countenanced the findings.

But no cultural tradition ever developed the idea that creatures evolved into new kinds of life. And so we see that understanding the long sweep of human history. They are typical of the range of implements being made by agriculturalists in the period between and BCE. Even the million-year time frames and multiple planetary systems that ancient Asian thinkers endorsed did not prepare them for the idea that humans are related to apes.

These include lifting the torso and walking on two When they divided Purusha. These greatnesses reached to the sky wherein live the ancient Sa— dhyas and gods. New York: Columbia University Press. From the navel was the atmosphere created. With this sacrificial oblation did the gods offer the sacrifice. What is the origin of the varnas?

Sources of Indian Tradition. With it did he variously spread out on all sides over what eats and what eats not. From that wholly offered sacrificial oblation were born the verses [rc] and the sacred chants.

The sacrificial victim. The moon was born from the mind. From it horses were born and also those animals who have double rows [i.

Thousand-headed Purusha. Such is his greatness.

Purusha born at the very beginning. From the Beginning to They are ritually the four forefathers of the four castes of India. These were the first norms [dharma] of sacrifice. From him was Viraj born. Purusha alone is all this—whatever has been and whatever is going to be. What were his two thighs and his two feet called? His mouth became the bra. Seven were the enclosing sticks in this sacrifice. With him as oblation. What became of his mouth.

What traits distinguished hominids from other animals? In fact. All creatures constitute but one-quarter of him. When the gods performed the sacrifice with Purusha as the oblation.. Thus did they fashion the worlds. With his three-quarters did Purusha rise up.

Dart mistakenly concluded that our early ancestors were violent and bloodthirsty creatures who carried their prey to slaughtering grounds. What species did she represent? Or was she a modern human? To survive. This Australopithecus africanus had a brain capacity of approximately one pint. See Map During the first millions of years of human existence. Yet this was just a beginning in human development.

This find was of great importance because the bones were so fully and completely preserved. Her arms were long. They are believed to date from approximately 3. But they did. It was only about The first clue came from an important discovery made in at Taung. They entailed far more physical adaptations to the environment than cultural transformations.

But it also raised some big questions: Was Lucy a precursor to modern-day humans? If so. Her skeleton provided some big answers. South Africa. Yet these beings were different from other animals.

Australopithecines not only were found in southern Africa but were discovered in the north as well. Archaeologist Donald Johanson discovered the fossilized bones of this young female in the Afar region of Ethiopia. Above all. Lucy showed us that human precursors were walking around as early as 3 million years ago.

Yet it must be strongly emphasized that these australopithecines were not humans. The researchers gave the skeleton a nickname. In She stood a little over three feet tall. They were no match for the big. That they survived at all in such a hostile environment is a bit of a miracle. O 0 Kilometers hominids had a tremendous Australopithecines advantage. The earliest hominid species evolved in Africa millions of years ago. In adapting. The places in which miracle. That hothat. What advantages did bipedalism give early hominids?

How to migrate out of hostile endid the changing environment of eastern and southern Africa shape the evolution of these vironments and into newer modern human ancestors? Lake Chad R. The single trait that gave early hominids a Lake real advantage for survival Turkana Congo R. Bipedalism made them and they were therefore able distinct from other primates. The physical design of the changing physical environments.

No straight-line genealogical tree exists from the first minids ever came down out of the trees was also a bit of a hominids to modern men and women.

Limpop Once they ventured into Tropic of Capricorn open savannas grassy plains with a few scattered trees. The process took a very long time. The Europeans we describe are rather rough, wild-living, warring peoples living on the fringes of the settled parts of the world and looked down on by more politically stable communities. They hardly seem to be made of the stuff that will catapult Europeans to world leadership a millennium later—indeed, they were very different people from those who, as the result of myriad intervening and contingent events, founded the nineteenth- and twentieth-century empires whose ruins are still all around us.

Our fourth principle is an emphasis on connections and what we call disconnections across societal and cultural boundaries. World history is not the history of separate regions of the world at different periods of time. It is the history of the connections among peoples living often at great distances from one another, and it is also the history of the resistances of peoples living within and outside societies to connections that threatened to put them in subordinate positions or to rob them of their independence.

A stress on connections inevitably foregrounds those elements within societies that promoted long-distance ties. Merchants are important, as are military men and political potentates seeking to expand their polities.

So are scholars and religious leaders, particularly those who believed that they had universalistic messages with which to convert others to their visions.

Perhaps most important of all in pre-modern world history, certainly the most understudied, are the nomadic pastoral peoples, who were often the agents for the transmission of products, peoples, and ideas across long and harsh distances. They exploded onto the scene of settled societies at critical junctures, erasing old cultural and geographical barriers and producing new unities, as the Arabs did in the seventh century CE and the Mongols in the thirteenth century.

Worlds Together, Worlds Apart is not intended to convey the message that the history of the world is a story of increasing integration. What for one ruling group brought benefits in the form of increased workforces, material prosperity, and political stability often meant enslavement, political subordination, and loss of territory for other groups.

The fifth and final principle is that world history is a narrative of big themes and high-level comparisons. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart is not a book of record. Indeed, in a work that covers the whole of the historical record of humankind from the beginnings of history to the present, the notion that no event or individual worthy of attention would be excluded is the height of folly. We have sought to offer clear themes and interpretations in order to synthesize the vast body of data that often overwhelms histories of the world.

Our aspiration is to identify the main historical forces that have moved history, to highlight those monumental innovations that have changed the way humans lived, and to describe the creation and evolution of those bedrock institutions, many of which, of course, endure.

In this regard, selfconscious cross-cultural comparisons of developments, institutions, and even founding figures receive attention to make students aware that some common institutions, such as slavery, did not have the same features in every society. Or, in the opposite fashion, the seemingly diverse terms that were used, say, to describe learned and religious men in different parts of the world—monks in Europe, ulama in Islam, Brahmans in India, and scholar-gentries in China—often meant much the same thing in very different settings.

We have constructed Worlds Together, Worlds Apart around big ideas, stories, and themes rather than filling the book with names and dates that encourage students only to memorize rather than understand world history concepts.

While describing movements that facilitated global connectedness, this book also shows how different regions developed their own ways of handling or resisting connections and change. Throughout history, different regions and different population groups often stood apart from the rest of the world until touched by traders or explorers or missionaries or soldiers. Some of these regions welcomed global connections. Others sought to change the nature of their connections with the outside world, and yet others resisted efforts to bring them into the larger world.

All, however, were somehow affected by their experience of connection. Yet, the history of the world is not simply one of increasing globalization, in which all societies eventually join a common path to the present. Rather, it is a history of the ways in which, as people became linked, their experience of these global connections diverged. Besides the central theme of interconnection and divergence, other themes also stand out in Worlds Together, Worlds Apart. First, the book discusses how the recurring efforts of people to cross religious, political, and cultural borders brought the world together.

Merchants and Preface educated men and women traded goods and ideas. Whole communities, in addition to select groups, moved to safer or more promising environments.

The transregional crossings of ideas, goods, and peoples produced transformations and conflicts—a second important theme. Finally, the movement of ideas, peoples, products, and germs over long distances upset the balance of power across the world and within individual societies. Such movements changed the relationship of different population groups with other peoples and areas of the world and led over time to dramatic shifts in the ascendancy of regions.

Changes in power arrangements within and between regions explain which parts of the world and regional groups benefited from integration and which resisted it. These three themes exchange and migration, conflict and resistance, and alterations in the balance of power weave themselves through every chapter of this work.

While we highlight major themes throughout, we tell the stories of the people caught in these currents of exchange, conflict, and changing power relations, paying particular attention to the role that gender and the environment play in shaping the evolution of societies.

The history of the world is not a single, sweeping narrative. On the contrary, the last 5, years have produced multiple histories, moving along many paths and trajectories. Sometimes these histories merge, intertwining themselves in substantial ways. Sometimes they disentangle themselves and simply stand apart. Much of the time, however, they are simultaneously together and apart. Formulated in this way, world history is the unfolding of many possible histories, and readers of this book should come away with a reinforced sense of the unpredictability of the past, the instability of the present, and the uncertainty of the future.

It is divided into eleven chapters, each of which marks a distinct historical period. Hence, each chapter has an overarching theme or small set of themes that hold otherwise highly diverse material together. We believe that this chapter is important in establishing the global context of world history. We believe too that our chapter is unique in its focus on how humans became humans, so we discuss how early humans became bipedal and how they developed complex cognitive processes such as language and artistic abilities.

Recent research indicates that Homo sapiens originated in Africa, probably no more than , years ago. These early men and women walked out of the African landmass sometime between , and 50, years ago, gradually populating all regions of the world. What is significant in this story is that the different population groups around the world, the so-called races of humankind, have only recently broken off from one another. Also in this chapter, we describe the domestication of plants and animals and the founding of the first village settlements around the globe.

NEW: Discussions of the role that dogs played in human evolution and the latest findings on the origins of humans. On the flood plains of the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the Nile in Egypt, the Indus valley in modern-day northern India and Pakistan, and the Yellow and Yangzi rivers in China, men and women mastered annual floods and became expert in seeding and cultivating foodstuffs.

In these areas, populations became dense. Riverine cultures had much in common. They had highly developed hierarchical political, social, and cultural systems, priestly and bureaucratic classes, and organized religious and cultural systems. But they also differed greatly, and these differences were passed from generation to generation. The development of these major complex societies certainly is a turning point in world history.

When aridity forced tribal and nomadic peoples living on the fringes of the settled populations to move closer to settled areas, they brought with them an insurmountable military advantage. They had become adept at yoking horses to war chariots, and hence they were in a position to subjugate or intermarry with the peoples in the settled polities in the river basins. Around BCE these peoples established new territorial kingdoms in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus valley, and China, which gave way a millennium later BCE to even larger, militarily and politically more powerful states.

In the Americas, the Mediterranean, sub-Saharan Africa, and the xxxvi Preface Pacific worlds, microsocieties arose as an alternative form of polity in which peoples lived in much smaller-scale societies that showcased their own unique and compelling features.

NEW: Expanded discussions of how the Egyptian pyramids were built and their role in Egyptian cosmology and fuller integration of material on the environmental catastrophe that shaped the third millennium BCE. Both states established different models that future empires would emulate. The Assyrians used brutal force to intimidate and subjugate different groups within their societies and neighboring states.

The Persians followed a pattern that relied less on coercion and more on tributary relationships, while reveling in cultural diversity. Vedic society in South Asia offers a dramatically different model in which religion and culture were the main unifying forces. Religion moves to the forefront of the narrative in other ways in this chapter. The birth of monotheism occurred in the Zoroastrian and Hebrew faiths and the beginnings of Buddhism.

All three religions endure today. NEW: Revised and expanded discussion of the origins of Judaism. The last millennium before the common era witnessed some of the most monumental developments in human history. Men like Confucius, the Buddha, Plato, and Aristotle, to name only the best known of this brilliant group, offered new insights into the natural world and provided new guidelines for how to govern justly and live ethically. In this era, small-scale societies, benefiting from more intimate relationships, took the place of the first great empires, now in decline.

These highly individualistic cultures developed new strategies for political organization, even including experimenting with a democratic polity. In Africa, the Bantu peoples spread across sub-Saharan Africa, and the Sudanic peoples of Meroe created a society that blended Egyptian and sub-Saharan influences. These were all dynamic hybrid societies building on existing knowledge.

First, Alexander and his armies changed the political and cultural landscape of North Africa and Southwest and South Asia. Culturally, Alexander spread Hellenism through North Africa and Southwest and central Asia, making it the first cultural system to achieve a transregional scope. Second, it was in the post-Alexander world that these commercial roads were stabilized and intensified.

For the first time, a trading network, known as the Silk Road, stretching from Palmyra in the West to central Asia in the East, came into being. Both the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire ruled effectively in their own way, providing an instructive comparative case study. Both left their imprint on Afro-Eurasia, and rulers for centuries afterward tried to revive these glorious polities and use them as models of greatness.

This chapter also discusses the effect of state sponsorship on religion, as Christianity came into existence in the context of the late Roman Empire and Buddhism was introduced to China during the decline of the Han. The Tang rulers patronized Buddhism to such a degree that Confucian statesmen feared it had become the state religion. Both Buddhism and Christianity enjoyed spectacular success in the politically fragmented post-Han era in China and in the feudal world of western Europe.

These dynamic religions represent a decisive transformation in world history. Buddhism grew through imperial sponsorship and significant changes to its fundamental beliefs, when adherents to the faith deified Buddha and created notions of an afterlife. In Africa a wide range of significant Preface xxxvii developments and a myriad of cultural practices existed; yet large common cultures also arose.

The Bantu peoples spread throughout the southern half of the landmass, spoke closely related languages, and developed similar political institutions based on the prestige of individuals of high achievement. In the Americas the Olmecs established their own form of the city-state, while the Mayans owed their success to a decentralized common culture built around a strong religious belief system and a series of spiritual centers.

This chapter ends with the Mongol conquests of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, which brought massive destruction. The Mongol Empire, however, once in place, promoted long-distance commerce, scholarly exchange, and travel on an unprecedented scale. The Mongol story also underscores the important role that nomads played throughout the history of the early world.

NEW: Expanded discussion of the Crusades. The rise of Islam provides a contrast to the way in which universalizing religions and political empires interacted.

Islam and empire arose in a fashion quite different from Christianity and the Roman Empire. Christianity took over an already existing empire—the Roman—after suffering persecution at its hands for several centuries.

In contrast, Islam created an empire almost at the moment of its emergence. By the time the Abbasid Empire came into being in the middle of the eighth century, Islamic armies, political leaders, and clerics exercised power over much of the Afro-Eurasian landmass from southern Spain, across North Africa, all the way to Central Asia. Confucianism enjoyed a spectacular recovery in this period.

Japan and Korea also enter world history at this time, as tributary states to Tang China and as hybrid cultures that mixed Chinese customs and practices with their own. The Christian world split in this period between the western Latin church and the eastern Byzantine church. Both branches of Christianity played a role in unifying societies, especially in western Europe, which lacked strong political rule.

The polities that came into being at this time and the intense religious experimentation that took place effected a sharp break with the past.Hundreds if not thousands of villages dotted the seashores and riverbanks of the Americas.

Landlocked Cosmopolitan. Distribution of: DNA occurs in the nucleus of every cell. The Assyrians used brutal force to intimidate and subjugate different groups within their societies and neighboring states. Unprepared for the advanced military technology and the disease pool of European and African peoples, the Amerindian population experienced a population decline even more devastating than that caused by the Black Death. But that explanation has long been discarded.

Purusha alone is all this—whatever has been and whatever is going to be. In the Americas, the Mediterranean, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Pacific worlds, microsocieties arose as an alternative form of polity in which peoples lived in much smaller-scale societies that showcased their own unique and compelling features.

MARJORIE from Irvine
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